The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Natural Snake Steve Madden Women's April Heeled SandalThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Pale bluee Safety Yellow Vibram Womens V-Train Cross-Trainer shoesDenim Frye Women's Carson Ballet Flat Alabaster Naturalizer Womens BEV PumpTan Cobb Hill Rockport Women's Harper-CH Wedge Sandalgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Black Antique Soft Vintage Frye Women's Carson Ballet Flatand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Black Leather Black Suede Comb Clarks Women's Tarah Brae PumpBleacher Vapor KEEN Womens Presidio Ii Mj-w Hiking shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,bluesh Frye Women's Carson Ballet FlatWhite Grey White Dust Rieker Women's Sina 78 PumpKhaki Leather Casual shoes Men's Breathable Solid color Peas shoes and Wild DrivingBlack T-JULY High Heel Wedges Sandals Platform Genuine Leather Hollow Out Open Toe shoes Women Summer I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Dusty pink suede Sam Edelman Womens Rumi Mule), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Black Red Mizuno Women's Wave Lightning Z4 Volleyball shoes), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Bordeaux Black Nike Men's LF1 Duckboot '17 Casual shoesand bluesh Badgley Mischka Womens Giona Heeled Sandal). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Pink Women Summer High Heel Sandals Stiletto Heels shoes Ankle Straps Platform Peep Toe Dress Party Evening Pink Black SilverBeige Icerom Women's Classic Ballerina Flats Elastic Crossing Strapsduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Black Gedigits Spring Summer Women Wedge Casual shoes Platform Sneakers Breathable Mesh Height Increased Sneakers shoes Black 4.5 M USBlack LingGT Women Casual Snow Boots Warm Zipper Ankle shoes (color Black, Size CA 9)Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Fluorescent Pink Jessica Simpson Womens Cassani3 Padded Insole Stiletto Dress HeelsLightbrown Women's Round Head Open Toe High Heel Sandals Suede Cross Belt High Heel Sandals Fashion Dress shoes (Heel Height 12 cm)And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Brown Hot Leaf Camo Muck Boot Women's Artic Sport II Mid Winter BootBlack Lux Kid Suede Jessica Simpson Women's Bryanne.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Black Geox Women's D OMAYA SneakersBlack Mousse Fly London Women's gold Women's Rhinestone Beach Slippers Summer Thick Heel Flower Decoration Leisure Slippers Bar Get Together SandalsPowder Powder ECCO Women's Yucatan SandalThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Apricot Over The Knee Boots Thin High Heels Party shoes Women Pointed Toe Satin BootsPink Eagsouni Women Men Anti-Slip Waterproof Ankle Snow Boots Fully Fur Lined Winter Outdoor Booties Sneakersfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Crimson Pulse Black Nike Women’'s Ebernon Mid Prem Basketball shoesTea pink Ryka Women's Devotion Plus 2 Walking shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeMosey Hunter Chaco Women's Z2 Classic Athletic SandalPearl Pink Lauren Ralph Lauren Women's Briony Driving Style Loafer.- Old Gringo Abelina BootsBeige Clear Brown Clear Granite Scarlet Adidas Men Hulton SPZL (Beige Clear Brown Clear Granite Scarlet) At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Tan Leather Clarks Women's Addiy Zora Ankle BootBlack Leather Cobb Hill Womens Venera Veronica Ankle Bootietherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Bitter Chocolate Hunter Original Short Boot Snow Boot).Legend Ink Red Night Tactile Yellow Adidas Performance Women's Pureboost XBlack Cobb Hill Rockport Women's Aria-Ch Boot However,Green Zeuow Fashion Women Sandals Breathable Comfort Shopping Ladies Walking shoes Summer Platform Black Sandalgold Gladiator High Heels Sandals Summer shoes Ankle Strap Peep Toe gold Silver Party Office shoes I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Purple Wine Patriot bluee Mizuno Womens Wave Shadow 2 Running shoes

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