The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Lady Sandals Fashion Women Sandals Summer Boom shoes Flat Heel Comfort Beach Summer Holiday Casual Leisure Daily Wild Patchwork color Stylish SandalsThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Roxy Women's Tahiti V Flip FlopAdrianna Papell Womens Paisley Oxford FSJ Women Fashion Almond Toe Ankle Strap D'Orsay Pumps High Heels Party Prom Sandals Size 4-15 USWeenFashion Women's Solid Blend Materials Low-Heels Buckle Open-Toe Sandalsgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Women Leopard Ankle Boots 2018 Winter New Pointed High-Heeled Boots Size 32-43 Bootiesand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Show Story Punk Black Studs High-top Bone Platform Ankle Boots,LF80678Show Story Punk Black Red Lace-up Zip High-top Bone Platform Ankle Boots,LF80672We integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Blowfish Womens Super Ankle BootieRF ROOM OF FASHION Women's Slide On Espadrille Platform Comfort Ankle Elastic Strap Footbed Wedge Sandal shoesJim Hugh Women Round Toe Cross Tied Rivet Mid Calf Snow Boots Black Fashion Autumn Winter Prom BootsCASSOCK Ladies Handmade High Heel Sandals Crosscriss Buckle Strap Slingback Patchwork Office shoes I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Donald J Pliner Women's Pira Sandal), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Nine West Women's Lavilah Leather Heeled Sandal), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, BalaMasa Womens Solid Smooth Leather Buckle Urethane Pumps shoes APL11333and ZHZNVX Women's PU Summer Casual Sandals Flat Heel Open Toe Black Brown Almond). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, CASSOCK Ladies Handmade Ankle Strap Pumps Butterfly Deco Party Wedding High Heel shoesRockport Womens Hattie 2 Piece Cuff Heeled Sandalduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). ZHAO YELONG Simple Women's Pointed High Heels Fine Heel Party Wedding Pump Basic shoesAnnaKastle Womens Classic Leather Penny Loafer Moccasin Driving shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Capezio Women's Dancesport Stella 3 Inch shoesCalaier Womens Jtabw Pointed-Toe 12CM Stiletto Slip-on Pumps shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?BalaMasa Womens Assorted colors Platform Comfort Urethane Walking shoes APL11260Women's Genuine Leather Knee High Boots.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Kamik Women's Calgary Boot BlackT-JULY Sandal for Women Summer Outside Mixed color Square High Heels Fadshion Ladies Dress Party shoes AdeeSu Womens Nubuck High-Top Solid Leather Boots SXE04971AdeeSu Womens Nubuck Warm Lining Solid Urethane Boots SXE04883The costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Calaier Womens Salsm Open-Toe 12CM Wedge Heel Buckle Sandals shoesChelsea Crew Gatsby Two Tone T-Strap Mary Jane Heels Tanfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Cambridge Select Women's Quilted Drawstring Mid-Calf Winter Snow BootAndré Assous Womens Ciara Sneaker There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placePATRIZIA Women's Pearl Wedge SandalNike - Flex Trainer 7 WMNS.Pleaser Womens SKY-308UVG C NHPG SandalsZPSPZ sandals womens Ladies'Summer Open Toe Clip Toe T-Belt Sandals Bohemian Toe Clip Large Beach shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Women's high Heels - Bunny Ears Pointed high Heel Suede Fashion shoesWomen Sandals Flat Thick Platform Sequined Ankle Strap Leisure Sneakers Sandals Lady shoestherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Milwaukee Ladies Blk Strappy Sandal Full shoes Strap High Heel New Block Heel).Women's shoes PU(Polyurethane) Fall Comfort Slouch Boots Slippers & Peep Toe Low Heel Round Toe for Casual Dress Party & EveningMEIZOKEN Women's High Heel Platform Pump Sandals Rhinestone Embellished Heel Peep Toe Chunky Party Slide Slippers However,AllhqFashion Women's High-Heels Solid Buckle PU Closed-Toe Pumps-shoes,FBUDD011946Fay Waters Women's Winter Warm Short Comfortable Snow Boots I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Cambridge Select Women's Closed Toe Credver Strap Western Cowboy Stacked Low Heel Ankle Bootie

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