The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. ASICS Men's Gel-kahana 8 Trail RunnerThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Gameday Boots NCAA Utah Utes Men'sSkechers Men's Verse Flashpoint Oxford Zxcvb Men Loafer Slip-on shoes Cushion Slip Resistant Genuine Leather Fashion Driving Boat Sneakers Casual Walking Performance Dress shoesSpring Men's Leather Casual Driving shoesgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, LOVDRAM Boots Men's Winter Martin Boots Boots Men'S Fashion Leather Brock High To Help Casual shoes Retro Boots Fashion Thick Cotton shoesand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Nike Men's Elite Quick Crew Nba Socken SocksLoafers Slip-Ons Men's Casual Leather Driving Breathable Flats Moccasins Handmade Penny Boat shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,GLSHI Men Closed Toe Sandals Summer New Comfort Cowhide Beach shoes Outdoor Breathable Slippers Large SizeLQ Men's sandals Summer breathable sewing thread mesh open toe sandals, men's rubber back sole wear-resistant adhesive shoes beach shoes (color Black, Size 43)Converse Unisex Adult Chuck Taylor All Star Adult Seasonal OX SneakersFlamingos' Life Kailash Dark Caramel - Trainers, Unisex I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Steve Madden Men's Intern Oxford), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. XUE Men's shoes Suede Spring Summer,Casual Athletic shoes,Breathable Running shoes,Lightweight Walking shoes, Light Soles Low-Top Sneakers,Comfort shoes (color B, Size 42)), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Silver Street Kipling Mens Casual Leather Grey Lace up Durable Brogue Derby Gibson shoes in Sizes 7-12and LIUXUEPING Spring and Summer Men's shoes Breathable Canvas shoes Comfortable Mesh shoes Student Sports shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Columbia Men's Vulc N Vent Low-Top SneakersMunich Adults' G-3 Indoor Fitness shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Puma Unisex Adults’ Smash V2 Low-Top SneakersFlair Classic AW Men's Sport shoes Trainers Running FitnessLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? shoes Salming 91 handball goalie marine orangeMens Motorcycle Boots Mid-Calf Punk Rock Black Boots Zipper Engineer Leather shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Hhgold Autumn New Men's Leather shoes, Business Casual shoes, Leather Breathable Non-slip Men's shoes (color Black, Size 42)SIKESONG Autumn Winter Martin Boots Men Safety shoes Men Work shoes Waterproof Casual Ankle Boots Work Men Boots.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Mens Chukka Boot Dress shoes Strap Cap Toe Boot black brownNike Men's Viale Competition Running shoes Unze Mens Dale Peshawari Kaptaan Leather Sandals UK Size 6-11Men's Work Footwear Steel Toe Cap Safety Breathable Hiking Anti-Smash Puncture Prevention Unisex Work Insulated shoesThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Memory Men's Casual shoes, Autumn and Winter Student shoes, British Wild Sports Running shoesMERRYHE Men's Lace Up Formal Dress shoes Full Grain Leather Work Utility Footwear Smart Derby Business Party Wedding shoesfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.QIDI Martin Boots Autumn High Help Rubber Leisure Flat Lace Men's Boots (Size US11 EU43 UK9)DANDANJIE Men's Basketball shoes Light Soles 2018 Fall Winter Comfort Athletic Sneakers There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeSandals Men's Outdoor Sports Leather Antiskid Sandals Breathable CasualMen's Casual Flat Loafers,Breathable Peas shoes Hand-Sewn Loafers & Slip-One Driving shoe Lazy shoes Slip-Resistant Dress.ZLLNSPX Mens Wild Beanie shoes Breathable Driving shoes Lazy shoesAutumn And Winter Male Casual Men's shoes Small shoes England Peas Korean Version Wild shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Puma Uprise Mesh Trainers BlackPuma Men's Serve Pro Denim Lace-Up Flats bluee blueetherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Hhgold Male winter tooling plus cashmere casual boots in the high thermal non-slip at the end (color Black, Size 44)).JCB Workmax Honey Waterproof Leather Steel Toe Safety Boots BlackLOVDRAM Men'S Leather shoes Men'S Casual shoes Business Fashion shoes Men'S Youth Belt shoes Round Head Breathable However,Mens Velvet Dress shoes Handmade Luxurious Flats Men Classic Loafers Fashion Party and Wedding Men Casual shoesOOFOS - Unisex Ooriginal Sport - Post Run Recovery Thong Sandal - Black Yellow - M9 W10 UK (43 EU) I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.SUw - Compositelite Reno Mid Cut Workwear Ankle Boot S1P - Beige - UK 12

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