The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. SaraIris Women's Round Toe High Heels Platform Zipper Glitter Suede Ankle BootsThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,SaraIris Zipper Chunky Heels Pointed Toe Knee high Boots for WomenArtfaerie Womens Floral Print Rhinestone Ankle Boots Side Zipper Pointed Toe Elegant Booties Faux Fur Warm shoes orange Tiger Pattern Woman Casual shoes Flat Lo-TopPleaser Womens Anna02 Cr Ballet Flatgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, MAIERNISI JESSI Unisex Men's Women's D-Orsay Pointed Toe Stiletto High Heel Pumpsand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. ERI Women Walking shoes Running Lightweight Breathable Casual Sports shoes Fashion Sneakers blueeYork Zhu Women Flats - Candy color Breathable Slip-on Ladies Loafers Fisherman shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,SARA LOPEZ Clogs-and-Mules-shoes Womens PinkWomen's Braided Strap Thong Flat Bohemian Slip On Flip Flops shoes T-Strap Casual Sandals,Black,35Ankle Boots Women Pointed Toe Elegant Embroidery Haft Short Winter shoesWeiPoot Women's Pull On Pointed Closed Toe Spikes Stilettos Pu Solid Pumps-shoes I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. T-JULY Women Rhinestone shoes Hollow Summer Genuine Leather shoes Woman Fashion shoes Heels Plus Size), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Wedge Ladies Beach Slipper Summer Leisure Wild Bow Flip Flops), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, PELLINA Sandals Womens Leather Greyand MAIERNISI JESSI Unisex Men's Women's Cross Strap Platform Stiletto High Heel Ankle Strap Slingback Sandals). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Womens Low-Heeled Sandal shoes Outside Wearing Sandals and Slippers Female Spring and Summer New Pointed High Heels Fine with SlipperT-JULY Gladiator Sandals for Women Slip on Soft String Bead Flats Woman Slingback Ankle Strap Open-Toe Casual shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Bella Marie Women's Comfortable Classical Ballerina Flats Round Toe Slip On shoesOushizhaoming Women's Fashion Mesh Breathable Garden shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? RedBrowm-women Warm Solid Tassel Crystal Increase Retro Ankle Boots Round Toe shoesPhil Betty Women's Pumps,Comfortable Sexy Trendy Red Black High Thin Heel Slip-on PumpAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?SERGIO MARTINI Pumps-shoes Womens Leather BrownElite Pumps-shoes Womens Suede Beige.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Style & Co. Womens Hadleyy Closed Toe Over Knee Fashion Boots, Truffle, Size 6.0pink town Women's Winter Snow Boots Bowtie Slip on Daily Warm Ankle Boots Cici shoes shoes Women's Pointed Toe Low Kitten Heel Pumps - Stiletto Wedding PumpsUnisex Hi-Top Canvas Sneakers colorful Lion Lace Up Anti Skid Sports Trainers shoesThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: BMTH Girl's Lace Up Low Heel Winter Ankle Boots Waterproof Rain Boots Martin Boots Outdoor Warm Snow shoes SneakersPUMA Women's Smash WNS v2 Leather Sneakerfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Unisex Fashion Waterproof Chelsea Rain Boots Short Ankel Snow BootsArtfaerie Women's Block High Heels Platform Lace Up Ankle Boots with Bows Sweet Retro shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeAN Womens Sandals Huarache Water_Resistant Urethane Sandals DIU00733Athena Alexander Women's Gredon Pump Grey Suede 8 M US.WBeauty Casual Ankle Boots 11.11 Round Toe Women shoes Winter Snow Boots Warm BritishPleaser Women's Deluxe-654RS PPS Slingback Sandal At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, AIYOUMEI Women's Pointed Toe Block Heel Booties Autumn Winter Ankle Boots with BowNine West Womens Elira Leather Wedge Pumptherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Hunter Womens Org Fringe T Buckle Open Toe Sport Sandals).Winter Ladies' Short Boots, Casual Heels, Big Heels and Big BootsAutumn Tassels, high Boots, Big Boots and Big Boots However,Maxstar C5 6Holes Synthetic Leather White Platform Canvas SneakersDecoStain Women's Five Star Ornamented Lace Up Ankle Bootie I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.JHY Fashion Hiking Boots Mens Women High top Sneakers Autumn Winter Outdoor Trekking Waterproof Athletic shoes

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