The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Desigual Women’s shoes_Cosmic Candy Low-Top SneakersThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Ted Baker Womens Jesamin PumpNew Balance Wr996, Women's Trainers Amblers Safety Mens FS987 Metatarsal Predection Waterproof Lace Up Safety Boot Black Size UK 7 EU 41Nike Women's Air Max 95generating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Fly London Womens YANK774FLY Moccasinand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. T-JULY Women's Infront Zipper Ankle Boots Autumn Winter Comfortable Low Heels Thick Plush Warm BootsMarc Fisher Womens Lizzy Ankle BootWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

Marc Fisher Limited RITER Black

I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,L.K. Bennett Women's Elloise SneakerComfortabel Damen-Pumps - H black 730403-1Taos Footwear Women's Debut Casual Slip OnMARC JOSEPH NEW YORK Mens Mens Genuine Grainy Leather Windsor Place Penny Loafer Penny Loafer I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Reebok Women's Classic Renaissance Ice Wide D Sneaker), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Adidas 3MC, Black Chalk Coral, 12 M US), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, shoes Men Full Grain Leather Business Men Dress shoes Retro Patent Leather Oxford shoes for Men (color Brown, Size 11-MUS)and U-MAC Women's High Heel Platform Pumps Pointy Toe Lace up Chunky Bootie Comfortable Walking shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Crime London Women's Glitter Sonic Trainers goldSteve Madden Womens Nevadaaa Slouch Bootduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Merrell Womens Siren Sport GTX Espresso Mineral Hiking shoescolorful Dream- 2018 New Female Winter Boots Snow Boots Warm Women's Winter Boots with Wool Fur Comfortable Genuine Leather Women's shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Vionic Women's Virginia Moccasin in TwilightNew leather men's shoes fashion business casual shoes in winter male line with breathable shoeAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Gentle Souls Women's Oxford Flat Sandal SilverVICES selection design Vices Diana Flat Sandal.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).WLJSLLZYQ Business Casual high Help shoes Simple tip of England Falling Grain Leather Men's shoesWLJSLLZYQ Increased in The Fashion shoes Women shoes with Big Size Sports Leisure shoes LIUshoes L&L Girls’ Winter Snow Boots Autumn and Winter A Boots Three use Snow BootsNike Women's Air Max 1 SEThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Men's shoes Trend Korean Version of The Set of Feet 2019 New shoes A Pedal Canvas shoes British Fashion Youth Casual shoes Leather shoes (color Black, Size 6 US)Charles by Charles David Women's Pattyfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Frye Womens Kelly CVO Stud Oxford Oxford FlatFrye Women's Melissa Knotted Short Boot There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeAdidas Galaxy 4 shoes Men's RunningASICS Tiger Mens Gel-Lyte Running Trainers H7ARK Sneakers shoes.Adidas Ultra Tech Mens B37917Softinos Women's Isla Smooth Trainers, Grey At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Nike Bruin QS Mens Trainers 842956 Sneakers shoesWomen's Nike Air Max Sequent Running shoes Black Grey White Hematite Size 10 M UStherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (CYBLING Breathable High Top Women Hidden Heels Wedge Sneakers Anti-Slip Platform Zipper shoes).Nike Men's Flex Control TR3 Sneaker, Wolf Grey-Deep Royal, 8.5 Regular USSkechers Womens On-The-go City 2 - Adapt Winter Boot However,Pajar Women's Toboggan Snow BootsDurango Mens DDB0116 Western Boot I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Giani Bernini Womens Sweets Closed Toe Classic Pumps, Beige, Size 7.5

Mima Venezia Women's 712 Mid Heel Pump, Black Green Adidas Mens Prosphere Textile Core Black White Trainers 11.5 US

Men Sandals New Casual Men Sandals Slippers Genuine Leather Cowhide Male Summer shoes Outdoor Classic Convenient Comfortable Leather Sandals