The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. JOUSEN Men's Chukka Boots Casual Leather High Top BootThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Nike Unisex Kids Air Max 1 555766-114 TrainersZYFA Casual shoes Sports men's shoes, non-slip wearable casual shoes, large size waterproof warm shoes, outdoor hiking shoes (three colors optional) (color A, Size 36) Steel Combat Boots Unisex Men's Ladies Leather Green 8 Eyelets Army Punk Toe CapMen's shoes fashion business casual trend line British fashion shoesgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, greyport GRS550-46 Trento Safety Boots, Size 46, Brown (Pack of 2)and molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. He-yanjing Men's Basketball shoes, Autumn and Winter New Men's High-top shoes Student Non-slip Wear Sports Boots Men's shoes,b,39Men's Low help Leisure Business shoes Lightweight Breathable Driving shoes Sleeve Round head LoafersWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Hhgold Fashion Trend Canvas Canvas shoes Comfortable Breathable Casual All-match Men's shoes (color Beige beige, Size 44)Xxoshoe Classic Men's Leather shoes Casual Business Leather shoes Dress shoes Large Size Casual PU shoes Black BrownFuxitoggo Men's Ankle Boots, Casual Autumn Winter High Top Zip Classic Work shoes (Warm Velvet Optional) (color Warm Black, Size 41 EU) (color Black, Size 44 EU)Honeywell 6551525-42 7 Safety Bacou TPT Office, P1 I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Trespass Tennant, Men's Multisport Outdoor shoes), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Sperry Mens Ao Burnished Canvas Ao Burnished Canvas), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Adidas Men's Crazy Heat Basketball shoesand PME Legend Men's PBO71005-8003 Trainers Grey Grey Grey Size 8 UK). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Sperry Top-Sider Scarpa Da Barca A O 2-Eye WashedJIALUN-shoes Men's Simple Genuine Leather Soft Slip on Moccasin Loafers Breathable Driving shoes Fashion Slipperduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). XUE Men's Leather Rivetboots Driving shoes Platform shoes Martin Boots Comfortable Sparkling Studded shoes Glitter personality Party & Evening Night Club Stage (color A, Size 38)FHCGMX Male shoes Adult For Men Winter Warm Solid Snow Boots Rubber Non Slip Walking Mens BootLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? ZHRUI Genuine Leather Boots for Men Soft Sole Comfort Non Slip Durable Breathable Boots (color Brown, Size UK 7)Hy-w Men's shoes, Man Leather Casual shoes Spring Fall Business Low-Top Casual shoes,dad shoes & Driving shoes Flat Loafers (color Black, Size 42)And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Nike Unisex Adults' Flex Contact Fitness shoesMen Training Fitness Sports shoes, Breathable Wear Resistant Non-slip Sneakers, Walk Tourism Sports shoes Jogging, on Foot.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Geox U Symbol D - Smooth Leather Men's DerbyJBHURF Men’s Hiking Boots Waterproof High Rise Anti-Slip Trekking shoes Climbing shoes Lined Lace-up Walking Boots LOVDRAM Men'S Leather shoes Autumn And Winter Men'S Casual Real Leather shoes Flat shoes Fashion Elastic Belt Men'S shoes Sports shoesAdidas Men's shoes Derby STThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: VALLEgreen shoes Men Low Sneakers 53861 TaupeVibram FiveFingers Men's V-Trail 17m6902 Trainersfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.LOVDRAM Men's shoes Tide shoes Men'S shoes Wild Casual shoes Men'S Korean Fashion Sports Wind Single shoes Men'SOriginal Penguin Men's MAXUS Sneaker, Navy, M075 M US There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeNike Men's Vortak Training shoesReebok Men's Answer Iv.v Cross Trainer.Man Black Sandals Summer Slipper Creative Street Snap Ankle Strap Sandals For Teenager students (Size 43)Reebok Men’s Zprint Train Fitness shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Merrell MQM Flex Mens Lace Up Multi Sports TrainersNike Soldier VIII (TD) Toddler 653647-700therefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Maple Casual Boot in Cinnamon).Reebok - Toe Down Ultra - J14726 - color Black-White - Size 11.0Caterpillar Men's Urge P722838 Trainers However,Converse Ctas Hi Egret Sports Training shoesshoes Men's Martin boots motorcycle combat boots,Outdoor waterproof non-slip bare boots punk leather military boots,Casual high boots Gothic military boots I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.SELCNG Hiking shoes Unisex Walking shoes Waterproof Walking shoes Men's Walking shoes with Outdoor Sports Hiking shoes Non-Slip outsole-grey-44

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